Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. To make a present participle, you add ``-ing'' to the verb, sometimes doubling the final consonant: A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. To make a gerund, you add ``-ing'' to the verb, just as with a present participle. The fundamental difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an adjective.

In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for adjectives:
add -er or -est to short adverbs

with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for the superlative

Simple future, form The 'simple' future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitive without 'to'
Simple future, function The simple future refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts or certainty. In this case there is no 'attitude'.

The future continuous is made up of two elements: the simple future of the verb 'to be' + the present participle (base+ing) Future continuous, function
The future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be in progress at a time later than now.

Future perfect, form The future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of the verb to have (will have) + the past participle of the main verb:
Future perfect, function The future perfect refers to a completed action in the future. When we use this tense we are projecting ourselves forward into the future and looking back at an action that will be completed some time later than now. It is often used with a time expression using by + a point in future time.

Future perfect continuous, form This form is composed of two elements: the future perfect of the verb to be (will have been) + the present participle of the main verb (base+ing):

Future perfect continuous, function Like the future perfect simple, this form is used to project ourselves forward in time and to look back. It refers to events or actions in a time between now and some future time, that may be unfinished.

1. Future with Going to - form This form is composed of three elements: the appropriate form of the verb 'to be' + going to + the infinitive of the main verb:

2. Future with Going to - function The use of 'going to' to refer to future events suggests a very strong association with the present. The time is not important - it is later than now, but the attitude is that the event depends on a present situation, that we know about. So it is used:

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as ``how,'' ``when,'' ``where,'' ``how much''.

An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.

Future perfect, form The future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of the verb to have (will have) + the past participle of the main verb:

The present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.2. Present continuous, function
As with all tenses in English, the speaker's attitude is as important as the time of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous, they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete.

2. Future: Present continuous for the future, function The present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at a time later than now. There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event, and that some preparation has already happened. e.g.

1. Present perfect - form The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs in the section called 'Verbs'.
2. Present perfect, function The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself.

Always use the present perfect when the time is not important, or not specified.
Always use the simple past when details about the time or place are specified or asked for.

A modifier can be an adjective, an adverb, or a phrase or clause acting as an adjective or adverb In every case, the basic principle is the same: the modifier adds information to another element in the sentence.

Present perfect continuous, form The present perfect continuous is made up of two elements: (a) the present perfect of the verb 'to be' (have/has been), and (b) the present participle of the main verb (base+ing).
Present perfect continuous, function The present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time between 'before now' and 'now'. The speaker is thinking about something that started but perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is interested in the process as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or may have just finished.

Regular verbs: base+ed e.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stopped

Negative and interrogative Note: For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as an ordinary verb, use the auxiliary "do", e.g. We didn't do our homework last night. The negative of "have" in the simple past is usually formed using the auxiliary "do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction "n't". The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses the auxiliary "do".

he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s: he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.

A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. To make a present participle, you add ``-ing'' to the verb, sometimes doubling the final consonant.

Verb Tense: Time The four past tenses are

the simple past (``I went'')
the past progressive (``I was going'')
the past perfect (``I had gone'')
the past perfect progressive (``I had been going'')

The four present tenses are

the simple present (``I go'')
the present progressive (``I am going'')
the present perfect (``I have gone'')
the present perfect progressive (``I have been going'')

Note that the present perfect and present perfect progressive are a present not past tenses -- that idea is that the speaker is currently in the state of having gone or having been going.

The four future tenses are

the simple future (``I will go'')
the future progressive (``I will be going'')
the future perfect (``I will have gone'')
the future perfect progressive (``I will have been going'')

Verb Tense: Aspect Verb tenses may also be categorised according to aspect. Aspect refers to the nature of the action described by the verb. There are three aspects: indefinite (or simple), complete (or perfect), continuing (or progressive).