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Nederland, Holland, etc.

-• Geology
Northern European delta clay and sand

40 percent of The Netherlands is below sea-level* at normal high tide.


has evolved in a flow of water, seaward in the great Northern European rivers; and inland from the ever-fluctuating Northern Sea, which is really part of an ocean.

The level of the ground in some areas of The Netherlands is dropping.

• The management of water, in some cases, leads to increased exposure to oxygen. For example, the canals around a livestock field carry off the excess water, allowing grass to grow — but that excess water was also preserving the organic matter within the soil. Oxygen enables biodegradation. Biodegradation -- however it works -- decreases the volume of the soil.

• The harvest of natural gas reduces the volume of matter underneath the soil — and the soil is only clay and sand, with dirt on top. De bodem dalt.

Return to " below sea level"...

Steve Edwards