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Pumping units

Stiffed a few quid

Pay people to
not work

Por arte

Factoring exploitation

Employers act differently when they know that a worker lacks alternative.

"Exploitation" is a strong word, implying conscious behavior. When a worker has too few rights, it's just a natural tendency.

First, if you're not allowed to work, you must accept cash or other untaxable currency. That's part of your bargaining power — it's something in the negotiation that you don't have. You can't just get paid. If an employer cannot hire you legally then you are not worth as much. You are statistically less valuable because paying you takes effort and is risky.

How to exploit Romanians and Bulgarians in Ireland 2008....

An employer is naturally going to want to regain certain advantages. The relationship is at basis an exchange.

There's not much good to say about a system of national borders that always generates exploitation of human labor.